oldest evidence of human presence in Constanta are remains originating
from the Neolithic culture Gumelnitza (5000BC). The city also has
significant remains (a depository containing 38 bronze objects)
dating from the final period of the bronze age and the beginning
of the iron age (12th century BC).
In the 6th century BC the Greeks moved into the peninsular zone
of the current city. From the first century BC the geopolitical
situation of the region was marked by the appearance of the Romans
(72/71 BC). The cities passed under the Roman authority then around
55 BC, under the reign of king Burebista. After a short period of
independence, the Romans took control of the city in 29/28 BC.
From the first years of the Roman presence, the Greek cities formed
a union, comprising five cities – Histria, Tomis, Callatis,
Dionysopolis (Balcic) and Odessos (Varna), then six, after the joining
of Pontique (Nesebar). Tomis was at this time the headquarters of
the Roman military command.
the 2nd century AD the city became the province capital and experienced
a significant urban development. From the 3rd century AD it suffered
the invasion of the Carps-Getes. From then on the city was nicknamed
"the all bright necropolis and capital of the Left Bridge".
Towards the end of 3rd century and during the following centuries,
until the reign of the emperor Justinian (527-565), inhabitants
devoted their efforts to repairing of the surrounding wall, still
visible in the Constanta Archaeological Park.
With the administrative reforms of Diocletian, Dobroudja became
Scythia Minor and Tomis became the capital. In this historical context
Tomis experienced a new economic boost: new public and private buildings,
increase in the harbour activity... It almost equalled that of the
new capital, Constantinople. Many ruins prove this theory: the Roman
edifices with mosaics, the thermal baths, as well as other many
discoveries (coins, ceramics, inscriptions, architectonic and sculptural
The spiritual importance of Tomis grew at the time when the Christian
religion became official in the empire (reign of the emperor Constantine
the Great - 306-337 AD). Many archaeological remains are witness
to this: basilicas sumptuously ornamented with plaques, arched windows,
pilasters and capitals with crosses, rosettes, etc.
five to seven are marked by the arrival of migrating populations
(Huns, Cotrigurs, the Slavs, Protobulgares) leading to the departure
of the Byzantine administration from the province for a long period
The Byzantine domination in Dobroudja was restored only in 971thanks
to the energetic emperor Ivan Tzimiskes. During the Byzantine period,
between the 8th and 12th centuries, Tomis was known under the name
of CONSTANTIANA or CONSTANTIA which was the name of a quarter of
Tomis in the 4th century BC.